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Amphetamine decreased the BOLD response during different cognitive tasks in the prefrontal and occipital cortices, a pattern which was attenuated by preadministration of either lithium or valproate. From: Translational Neuroimaging, Stimulants are a class of drugs that increase brain activity. They can temporarily elevate alertness and awareness. Coffee or tea active ingredient caffeine and the smoking of tobacco active ingredient nicotine are the two most common stimulants; they have been widely accepted in societies throughout the world for centuries.
Ingredients for amphetamine stimulants have widely known adverse effects. The two most commonly abused stimulants, amphetamine and cocaine, are not legally accepted in the way coffee or cigarettes are in most societies. Figure The chemical structures of some stimulant drugs. Amphetamine and amphetamine derivatives, such as dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine, have similar basic structures and thus similar effects.
In fact, amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are the same molecule with a stereochemical difference. Methamphetamine is an amphetamine with an extra methyl group attached to an N atom Figure The chemical structure of amphetamine and its derivatives. These amphetamine-type stimulants have been the most commonly abused drugs other than prescription drugs for a long time and are still a growing global problem.
A few events in the discovery and uses of amphetamine-type stimulants are shown in Figure There is always a potential danger when a medicine is overdosed or abused for a long period of time. In the case of psychoactive medicines, the situation becomes worse. As stimulants, these drugs may produce dose-related symptoms, such as increased alertness, euphoria, hallucinations, heart rate, blood pressure, and violent behavior.
The history of the development of amphetamine and its derivatives. Structurally, methamphetamine is closely related to ephedrine and adrenaline Figure The structural relationship between ephedrine, adrenaline, and methamphetamine. The stereochemical difference between ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Amphetamine can be synthesized in one pot reaction, however, isolation and purification of the drug is tedious. A mixture of phenylactone and formamide when heated in the presence of formic acid forms N-formylamphetamine, which in hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid produces amphetamine hydrochloride.
After neutralization with a milder base, the oily liquid of amphetamine is produced. The oil of amphetamine is then steam-distilled to get pure amphetamine. The basic amphetamine is then treated with sulfuric acid to get the crystalline salt form of amphetamine Figure Synthesis of amphetamine. Alternatively, amphetamine is synthesized by a reductive Ingredients for amphetamine from phenylacetone.
Alternative synthesis of amphetamine. Methamphetamine is synthesized starting from either ephedrine or phenylacetone. The reaction sequences are shown in Figure Synthesis of methamphetamine. Nelson, D. CART was originally discovered as an mRNA encoding an 89mer that was regulated by drugs of abuse in certain brain regions.
Central administration of CART and CART fragments decreases food intake, although the actual brain region responsible for this action is somewhat debated.
CART also has effects on the control of normal movement which may complicate preclinical food intake studies. However, the CART knockout mouse does not become obese on a normal diet and the receptor for this peptide is currently unknown. Further study will be required to appreciate fully the potential of this target for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamine d -amphetamine, dextroamphetamine is a synthetic drug that possesses psychostimulant and performance-enhancing properties. Amphetamine has some medical indications, especially for those conditions characterized by reduced attention.
However, the performance-enhancing effects of amphetamine, together with its euphoriant properties, often lead to its misuse and abuse outside the medical setting. This chapter overviews the effects of amphetamine, summarizing the medical indications of this drug, and discussing the factors that underlie its misuse and abuse. Moreover, the health risks related to these Ingredients for amphetamine are discussed, in addition to interactions between amphetamine and other psychoactive substances, and to the neurotoxic potential of amphetamine.
Lori A. Knackstedt, in Biological Research on Addiction Amphetamine is a chiral compound; the two stereoisomeric forms of amphetamine are levoamphetamine L-amphetamine and dextroamphetamine D-amphetamine. Both stereoisomers are indirect agonists of the catecholaminergic systems, working to prevent the reuptake of DA and NE as well as stimulating their release from nerve terminals.
Amphetamine was first synthesized in and the racemic mixture was marketed in the form of the Benzedrine inhaler for Ingredients for amphetamine treatment of asthma and nasal congestion. Amphetamine was made available in tablet form inwhen it was used as a treatment for narcolepsy and also by the military to increase wakefulness in the World War II soldiers. Following the World War II, America experienced a surge in recreational amphetamine use that lasted until the s.
Today, the main clinical application of amphetamine is the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. The modern formulation of amphetamine for ADHD treatment is a combination of racemic amphetamine and d-amphetamine e. Both Adderall and meth are commonly abused today. While meth shares many neuropharmacological properties with d-amphetamine, meth is discussed in a separate chapter in this volume. Sindicich, in International Encyclopedia of Public Health Amfetamine users who inject the drug are at high risk of blood-borne infections through needle sharing.
Amfetamine users are as likely as opioid users to share injection equipment. Primary amfetamine users are also a sexually active group, small proportions of whom engage in paid sex to support drug use. High-dose amfetamine use, especially by injection, can result in a schizophreniform paranoid psychosis, associated with loosening of associations, delusions, and hallucinations. The psychosis could be reproduced by the injection of large doses in addicts and by the repeated administration of large doses to normal volunteers. High proportions of regular amfetamine users report symptoms such as anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, and depression.
The emergence of such symptoms is associated with injecting the drugs, greater frequency of use, and dependence on amfetamines. In high doses, amfetamines can be lethal but the risk is low compared to the risks of overdose from heroin.
Amfetamine-related deaths are due to the effects of amfetamines on the cardiovascular system, for example, cardiac failure and cerebral vascular accidents. Amfetamines appear to be neurotoxic with animal studies indicating that heavy amfetamine use in dopaminergic depletion.
More recently, deficits in performance on neuropsychological tests have been demonstrated in human users. Therapeutic uses of amphetamine include treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, narcolepsy, and obesity. Methamphetamine is much less commonly used as a prescription drug, being mainly used for treatment of obesity.
There are also medications that metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine.
For example, selegiline Eldepryl, Zelapara drug used in the treatment of Parkinson disease, is metabolized to l -methamphetamine and also l -amphetamine. Clobenzorex is a prescription drug that is metabolized to d -amphetamine. TABLE 7. This efflux le to increased extracellular DA levels, an event of importance for psychomotor stimulant properties. Hamilton et al. Amara et al. The activation of cytoplasmic aling cascades contributes to behavioral effects of acute AMPH exposure and may explain some of the unique neurobiological consequences associated with AMPH use and abuse.
Recent work has demonstrated the importance of C-terminal protein-protein interactions for DAT trafficking. Guptaroy et al. Amphetamine belongs to the psychostimulant drugs, substances that increase wakefulness and activity levels, decrease fatigue, and induce feelings of euphoria. The use of stimulant compounds dates centuries back in time. In China, the drug Ma-huang has been used for over years, and inIngredients for amphetamine Japanese scientist Nagai found that ephedrine was the active agent in Ma-huang.
In the same year, a German chemist Edeleau synthesized amphetamine for the first time, which was found to be related to the natural psychostimulant ephedrine. However, there was no formal indication for medical use of amphetamine at that time. In the s, amphetamine was marketed as an inhaled pharmaceutical compound under the trade name Benzedrine, used for the treatment of nasal congestion.
During World War II, amphetamine was commonly used to increase energy as well as to reduce fatigue and hunger in soldiers. When returning from the War, the soldiers continued to use the drug, which gave rise to an epidemic of amphetamine misuse and dependence. After the War, Benzedrine inhalers were banned by the US Food and Drug Administration in and amphetamine was limited to prescription use. Globally, million adults are reported to be using amphetamine-type stimulants including ecstasy, an amphetamine derivativeand the only illicit drug that is Ingredients for amphetamine more often than amphetamines is cannabis.
The width of the ranges for amphetamines reflects a higher of estimated users in and new availability of data in the Caribbean countries, and an increased level of uncertainty for the estimates produced for Asia, which is thought to be one of the main markets for amphetamines. Keith Heinzerling, in Interventions for Addiction Oral formulations of AMP and MA are used therapeutically for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy and occasionally to treat obesity.
Acute administration at therapeutic doses in moderate stimulation of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems producing increased alertness, decreased sleep, improved cognition, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.
High doses typical of chronic abuse result in an intense euphoria and may cause agitation, hallucinations, and frank psychosis. As a result, development of an effective medication to augment existing behavioral therapies is an important public health imperative.
The following is a summary of medications that have completed initial testing in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials phase I and in some cases phase II. But medications targeting other neurotransmitter systems have also been evaluated including GABA, acetylcholine, opioids, glutamate, serotonin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. Amphetamine Amphetamine decreased the BOLD response during different cognitive tasks in the prefrontal Ingredients for amphetamine occipital cortices, a pattern which was attenuated by preadministration of either lithium or valproate.
Download as PDF. Set alert. About this. View chapter Purchase book. Amphetamine Usage, Misuse, and Addiction Processes Nicola Simola, Manolo Carta, in Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance MisuseAbstract Amphetamine d -amphetamine, dextroamphetamine is a synthetic drug that possesses psychostimulant and performance-enhancing properties. Neuropharmacology of Cocaine and Amphetamine Lori A. Knackstedt, in Biological Research on AddictionAmphetamine Amphetamine is a chiral compound; the two stereoisomeric forms of amphetamine are levoamphetamine L-amphetamine and dextroamphetamine D-amphetamine.
Sindicich, in International Encyclopedia of Public HealthAmfetamine-Type Stimulants Amfetamine users who inject the drug are at high risk of blood-borne infections through needle sharing. Amphetaminil This drug is metabolized into amphetamine and is used for treating narcolepsy and obesity.
Benzphetamine Didrex Benzphetamine, an appetite suppressant, is metabolized to methamphetamine and then into amphetamine. Clobenzorex Clobenzorex is an appetite suppressant that is metabolized into amphetamine. Dimethylamphetamine This compound is metabolized into methamphetamine. It is often found as an impurity in illicit methamphetamine preparation. Dexedrine Dexedrine contains dextroamphetamine and is used in treating attention deficit disorders and narcolepsy. Dextrostat Dextrostat contains dextroamphetamine and is used in treating attention deficit disorders and narcolepsy.
Desoxyn Desoxyn contains d -methamphetamine and is used for treating attention deficit disorders and also obesity. Ethylamphetamine An older drug used as appetite suppressant is metabolized into amphetamine. Fenethylline Fenethylline is a theophylline derivative of amphetamine having stimulant effects similar to those of other amphetamine-type derivatives.
It is metabolized into amphetamine. Lisdexamfetamine Lisdexamfetamine l -lysine-dextroamphetamine is a prodrug that is converted into d -amphetamine. It is used in treating attention deficit disorders. Mefenorex Mefenorex Rondimen, Pondinil, Anexatea stimulant drug, is used as an appetite suppressant. Selegiline Selegiline is used Ingredients for amphetamine treat symptoms of Parkinson disease. This drug is metabolized into l -methamphetamine and then into l -amphetamine. Vicks inhaler A nonprescription medication containing l -methamphetamine. Adderall is a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine and is used for treating attention deficit disorders and narcolepsy.
Benzphetamine, an appetite suppressant, is metabolized to methamphetamine and then into amphetamine. This compound is metabolized into methamphetamine. Dexedrine contains dextroamphetamine and is used in treating attention deficit disorders and narcolepsy. Dextrostat contains dextroamphetamine and is used in treating attention deficit disorders and narcolepsy.Ingredients for amphetamine
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DIY: The New Amphetamine Trade