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The history of the London Underground began in the 19th century with the construction of the Metropolitan Railwaythe world's first underground railway. The Metropolitan Railway, which opened in using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, worked with the District Railway to complete London's Circle line in Both railways expanded, the Metropolitan eventually extending as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshiremore than 50 miles 80 km from Baker Street and the centre of London.
The first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railwayopened in with electric trains.
By the District and Metropolitan Railways had electrified the underground sections of their lines. World War I delayed extensions of the Bakerloo and Central London Railways, and people used the tube stations as shelters during Zeppelin air raids by June History of london underground the war, government-backed financial guarantees were used to expand the network, and the tunnels of the City and South London and Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railways were linked at Euston and Kennington, although the combined service was not named the Northern line until later.
The Piccadilly line was extended north to Cockfosters and took over District line branches to Harrow later Uxbridge and Hounslow. The outlying branches of the Metropolitan were closed; various upgrades were planned. The Bakerloo line 's extension to take over the Metropolitan's Stanmore branch, and extensions of the Central and Northern lines, formed part of the s New Works Programme. The outbreak of World War II in halted or interrupted some of this work, and many tube stations were used as air-raid shelters. The LPTB was nationalised inand the reconstruction of the mainline railways was given priority over the maintenance of the Underground.
In an unpainted aluminium train entered service on the District line, and this became the standard for new trains. In the early s the Metropolitan line was electrified as far as Amershamand steam locomotives no longer hauled passenger trains.
The Victoria linea new tube line across central London, opened in —71 with trains driven automatically. In another new route, the Jubilee linetook over part of the Bakerloo line; it was extended through the Docklands to Stratford in Under the control of the Greater London CouncilLondon Transport introduced in a system of fare zones for buses and underground trains that cut the average fare. Fares increased following a legal challenge but the fare zones were retained, and in the mids the Travelcard and the Capitalcard were introduced.
In the early years of the 21st century, London Underground was reorganised in a public—private partnership where private companies upgraded and maintained the History of london underground. In control passed to Transport for London TfLwhich had been opposed to the arrangement and, following financial failure of the infrastructure companies, had taken full responsibility by The contactless Oyster card first went on sale in The East London line closed in to be converted into a London Overground line, and in December the Circle line changed from serving a closed loop around the centre of London to a spiral also serving Hammersmith.
Currently there is an upgrade programme to increase capacity on several Underground lines, and work is under way on a Northern line extension to Battersea. In the first half of the 19th century, London had grown greatly and the development of a commuting population arriving by train each day led to traffic congestion with carts, cabs and omnibuses filling the ro. Charles PearsonSolicitor to the City of London, was a leading promoter of several schemes,  and he contributed to the creation of the City Terminus Company to build such a railway from Farringdon to King's Cross in Although the plan was supported by the City of London, the railway companies were not interested and the company struggled to proceed.
The Met's early success prompted a flurry of applications to parliament in for new railways in London, many competing for similar routes. The House of Lords established a select committee that recommended an "inner circuit of railway that should abut, if not actuallynearly all of History of london underground principal railway termini in the Metropolis".
Proposals to History of london underground the Met were accepted, and the committee agreed a proposal that a new company, the Metropolitan District Railway commonly known as the District Railwaybe formed to complete the circuit. The Met's chairman and three other directors were on the board of the District, John Fowler was the engineer of both companies.
The construction works for the extensions were let as a single contract   and the Met initially operated all the services. To improve its finances, the District terminated the operating agreement and began operating its own trains. Harrow was reached inand the line eventually extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshiremore than 50 miles 80 kilometres from Baker Street and the centre of London. From the end of the 19th century, the railway shared tracks with the Great Central Railway route out of Marylebone.
Bywhen the District began operating its own trains, the railway had extended to West Brompton and a terminus at Mansion House. As part of the project that completed the Circle line in Octoberthe District began to serve Whitechapel. A circular 7-foot-diameter 2. A railway was laid in the tunnel and from August a wooden carriage conveyed passengers from one side to the other. This was uneconomic and the company went bankrupt by the end of the year and the tunnel was converted to pedestrian use, becoming known as the Tower Subway.
Two footinch 3. From Elephant and Castle, the tunnels were a slightly larger 10 feet 6 inches 3. The tunnels were bored under the ro to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. The original intention to cable-haul the trains changed to electric power when the cable company went bankrupt. The carriages were fitted with small windows and consequently were nicknamed padded cells. In this opened, charging a flat fare of 2 d approximately 91p today becoming known as the "Twopenny tube" and by the end of the year carrying nearly 15 million passengers.
Initially electric locomotives hauled carriages, but the heavy locomotives caused vibrations that could be felt on the surface. In —03 the carriages were reformed into multiple units using a control system developed by Frank Sprague in Chicago. However the GNR refused permission for trains to use its Finsbury Park station, so platforms were built beneath the station instead and public service on the line, using electric multiple units, began in On the District and Metropolitan Railways, the use of steam locomotives led to smoke-filled stations and carriages that were unpopular with passengers and electrification was seen as the way forward.
A tender was announced for an electric system, and the largest European and American companies applied to win the tender. However, when the experts of the London Metro compared the de of the Ganz Works to the offers of the other large European and American competitors, they have found, that the newest type of AC traction technology of the Ganz Works is more reliable, cheaper and considered its technology as a "revolution in electric railway traction". Initially this was accepted by both parties,  until the District found an investor, the American Charles Yerkesto finance the upgrade.
The Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade the DC system was adopted. The Metropolitan electrified its new line from Harrow to Uxbridge and the route to the inner circle at Baker Street,  using separate positive and negative conductor rails energised at — V.
The Met trains were withdrawn from the District lines and modified, full electric service starting on the circle line in September. An electric service with tly owned rolling stock started on the route in November Yerkes bought the rights inand obtained additional approval for a branch from Camden Town to Golders Green.
Yerkes bought the rights to this railway in It was named the 'Bakerloo' in Julycalled an undignified "gutter title" by The Railway Magazine. To promote travel by the underground railways in London a t marketing arrangement was agreed that included maps, t publicity and through ticketing. In the Bakerloo line reached Paddington, and the following year the Hampstead line was extended south of its Charing Cross terminus to an expanded interchange station currently known as Embankment with the Bakerloo and District lines.
London saw its first air raids inand people used the tube stations as bomb shelters. After the war new trains were purchased to run on the Metropolitan, District, Bakerloo and Piccadilly lines, the Piccadilly line trains having air-operated sliding doors. The lines were to be known as the Edgware, Highgate and Morden and the Morden-Edgware  until finally renamed the Northern line in Busy central London stations were modernised with escalators replacing lifts.
Unlike other railway companies in the London area, the Met was able to develop land for housing. After World War I they promoted housing estates near the railway with the " Metro-land " brand and nine housing estates were built near stations on the line. In the s more powerful electric and steam locomotives were purchased and Metropolitan Railway stations were redeed by their architect Charles W Clark.
With finance guaranteed by the government the Piccadilly lines and Metropolitan were extended in the early s. InHarry Beck 's diagrammatic tube map appeared for the first time. It was proposed History of london underground electrify to Amersham with additional tracks from Harrow to Rickmansworth and to extend the Bakerloo line to Stanmore to relieve the bottleneck on the Metropolitan from Baker Street to Finchley. New trains were delivered before the outbreak of World War II inincluding cars for the District and Metropolitan lines and 1, new cars Stock for the tube lines.
The Northern line reached Mill Hill East in Maybut by then work History of london underground the other Northern and Central line extensions had been suspended. Before the war, the Olympia exhibition centre had been served by the Metropolitan line and by a service from Earl's Court to Willesden Junction.
This left the exhibition centre without a railway service, so after the war the station was renamed Kensington Olympia and served by a District line shuttle from Earl's Court. The BTC prioritised the reconstruction of the main line railways over the maintenance of the Underground and most of the unfinished plans of the —40 New Works Programme were shelved or postponed.
Between andLondon Transport reported directly to the Minister of Transport, before control passed to the Greater London Council. The Victoria line was recommended in a report as it would reduce congestion on other lines. After some experimental tunnelling inconstruction began in and, unlike the earlier tubes, the tunnels did not have to follow the ro above.
The line was originally approved to run from Walthamstow to Victoria stationthe extension to Brixton being authorised later. The Moorgate tube crash occurred on 28 February on the isolated Northern City Line when a southbound train failed to stop at the Moorgate terminus and crashed into the wall at end of the tunnel, killing forty-four people.
No fault was found with the train equipment, the subsequent report found that there was insufficient evidence to determine the cause. Following the incident, a system that stops a train automatically if the driver fails to brake was introduced at dead-ends on the London Underground. The last tube train ran in Octoberand British Rail services began in The Fleet line through central London was first proposed intaking over the Bakerloo line's Stanmore branch at Baker Street and then running via Fleet Street to Lewisham. To simplify planning the construction was divided into stages, and the first stage from Baker Street to Charing Cross had all the necessary approvals by Inthe Greater London Council GLC introduced the ' Fares Fair ' scheme, a system of fare zones for bus and underground trains, cutting the average fare by 32 per cent.
This was challenged in court, the GLC lost and fares doubled in The fare zones were retained and fares dropped slightly the following year. In the Travelcard allowed travel within the specified zones on buses and underground trains, and was followed in Capitalcard in that included British Rail services.
By the early s, the pre-war trains had been replaced by new unpainted aluminium trains. One person operation had been planned inbut conflict with the trade unions delayed introduction. One Person Operation was introduced on the Central and Northern lines after they received new trains in the early s. The King's Cross fire killed 31 people in November when a lit match set fire to a wooden escalator.
In the subsequent report London Underground was strongly criticised for its attitude to fires  and its publication led to reations of senior management in both London Underground and London Regional Transport and to the introduction of new fire safety regulations. At the same time, the exterior of the trains were painted as it had proved difficult to remove graffiti from unpainted aluminium. The first refurbished trains were presented to the media in Septemberand the project launched in July Approved in the stations were built to be fully accessible and with platform edge doors.
Inbefore control was passed to TfL, London Underground was split up so that a public—private partnership PPP arrangement could be put in place, with London Underground remaining a public company running the trains while private companies were responsible for upgrading the railway. In overall control of the system passed to TfL, which had been opposed to the arrangement.
TfL also said that new technology promised by Metronet had yet to be seen — "We were supposed to be getting private sector expertise and technology with the PPP Public Private Partnership but instead they are just using the same old kit. In Marchthe House of Commons Public s Committeecharged with ensuring value for money in public spending, published a report concluding that it was "impossible to determine" whether the PPP was History of london underground value than a publicly run investment programme, primarily because of the untested periodic review structure of the year contracts.
In AprilBob Kiley pressed for an urgent review of the PPP, describing its performance as "bordering on disaster".History of london underground
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